To report suspected child abuse, please visit this page. Please call the police at 999 immediately if the child's life is in danger.
Children need a safe and nurturing environment for their growth and development. As far as possible, children should stay with their families. However, when the family environment becomes unsafe for a child, the child may need to be placed in an alternative environment for his or her safety and well-being.
Child abuse is defined as any act of commission or omission by a parent or caregiver which would endanger or impair the child’s physical or emotional well-being.
Forms of Child abuse:
- Physical Abuse
- Sexual Abuse
- Emotional and Psychological Abuse
The Children and Young Persons Act (CYPA) provides the legal framework to protect children. It allows relevant authorities to intervene if a child (below the age of 14) or young person (from 14 years to below 16 years of age) is abused or neglected.
Child Protection Concerns exist on a spectrum
Child abuse can be understood in terms of a range of child protection concerns.
At the lower end of the spectrum would be families with high level of emotional and financial stress. Such families could benefit from more support to help them cope with stressors and provide adequate care for the children.
Parents neglecting their children’s needs, such as failing to provide adequate food, clothing or medical care for their children would present higher level of child protection concerns.
Situations presenting with even more serious child protection concerns would be when parents deliberately cause serious injuries such as cuts, bruises and broken bones to their children and are also unwilling to work with community partners.
Network of Agencies Keeping Children Safe
The extent and intrusiveness of interventions provided to families are in relation to the severity of child protection concerns presented. There is a network of committed professionals who work together to keep children safe. The Ministry of Social and Family Development (MSF) is the lead agency for protecting children from abuse and neglect in Singapore. MSF and partners in the child protection system such as Police, pre-schools, schools, hospitals, social service agencies, Prisons, Courts and Attorney-General’s Chambers work closely to safeguard the interests and welfare of children in Singapore.
Diagram 1. Continuum of interventions to address child protection concerns
Everyone has a role to play in keeping children safe. To help families early, community intervention is the first line of support. Community partners such as Family Service Centres (FSCs), Child Protection Specialist Centres (CPSCs) and Safe and Strong Families Preservation (SSF-P) community agencies can provide the first line of support to help families in the community and ensure that the children are safe within their families.
Family Service Centres (FSCs)
For families facing high levels of emotional and economic stress, which may affect the care of children in the households, FSCs can work with them to provide early intervention and support such as financial assistance or counselling to help parents cope with their stressors better and provide adequate care for the children.
Community-Based Specialist Centres
Within the community, Child Protection Specialist Centres (CPSCs) serve as specialists on child protection matters. Currently, there are two CPSCs in Singapore: Big Love CPSC and HEART@Fei Yue CPSC.
With effect from 1 April 2020, Safe Space CPSC and PAVE Family Violence Specialist Centre (FVSC) operate as one to form PAVE Integrated Services for Individual and Family Protection Specialist Centre (PAVE ISIFPSC). The IFPSC is a one-stop integrated community service for individuals and families experiencing violence. It addresses issues on violence holistically through the continuity of services related to child protection and family violence.
MSF has trained professionals from these agencies to provide intensive and specialised assessment and community-based intervention, through casework and home-based services. These agencies are able to provide early intervention and support to families with moderate child protection concerns in the community. Examples of moderate child protection concerns include inappropriate or excessive discipline towards the children but caregivers are willing to receive help and improve their parenting. These agencies work with families in the community to provide a safe and stable home environment for children.
Safe and Strong Families (SSF) Programme
To help break the cycle of inter-generational violence and improve the life circumstances of children, MSF implemented the Safe and Strong Families (SSF) programme through various community agencies. The SSF programme aims to strengthen families with child protection concerns. Families with children who are at imminent risk of being removed due to safety concerns or families with children who are ready to return home after a period in alternative care will be provided with intensive support by caseworkers from SSF community agencies. The goal is to work with parents to overcome their challenges and improve their parenting skills and family functioning to provide a safe and nurturing environment for their children.
Child Protective Service
The Child Protective Service (CPS) within MSF undertakes the statutory role in investigating and intervening in situations where children cannot remain safe with their parents or caregivers. CPS only steps in for situations that present serious child protection concerns, e.g. sexual abuse, severe neglect, serious injuries inflicted by parent/caregiver.
CPS will undertake a social investigation using evidence-based tools to assess the safety and well-being of the child. CPS will work with parents/caregivers, extended family members and community partners to ensure that the child is in a safe and stable environment. Concurrently, the police may conduct a criminal investigation and determine the action to be taken for the offence against the child.
When child protection concerns are severe and parents/caregivers are unwilling or unable to ensure the safety of children in their care, CPS will place the child in alternative care such as with extended family members or friends who can protect the child. If extended family members or friends are not suitable, CPS will then place the child in foster care or a Children’s Home. When a child is placed outside of his/her parents’ care, CPS will work with parents to reintegrate the child with his/her family as soon as possible.
Regardless of family background, all children have the right to feel safe. Together, MSF and partners in the child protection system work hand-in-hand towards the goal of keeping children safe.
To sharpen the ability of professionals to pick up safety concerns for children, MSF has trained professionals in the community (e.g. teachers, social service agency staff) to use evidence-based tools such as the Sector-Specific Screening Guide (SSSG) and Child Abuse Reporting Guide (CARG). The SSSG and CARG guide professionals on managing reports of suspected child abuse, and the follow-up thereafter to ensure the safety and well-being of the children. Visit this page to find out more about SSSG and CARG.
This publication Protecting Children in Singapore provides more information on the child protection system in Singapore.
This guide on Family Preservation by Safe and Strong Families (SSF) Programme: Practitioner’s Resource Guide introduces readers to intensive family preservation in Singapore.
For information on statistics of child abuse investigations by MSF, please visit this webpage.