The Women’s Charter
Enacted in 1961, the Women’s Charter enshrined the protection of women in Singapore and defined the institution of family by legislating monogamy for civil marriages. It also spells out the provisions relating to:
- Solemnization of marriages;
- Registration and dissolution of civil marriages;
- Rights and duties of married persons;
- Maintenance of wives and children;
- Protection of family; and
- Penalties for offences against women and girls.
The Women's Charter (Amendment) Bill 2019
The Women’s Charter was amended in November 2019 to impose tougher penalties on human traffickers.
The amendments aim to:
Enhance protection for victims of trafficking and prostitution through enhancing penalties;
Target the irresponsible lease of premises to prevent them from being used for vice activities; and
strengthen law enforcement against vice syndicates that organise and facilitate prostitution, especially those operating through online means
The Women’s Charter (Amendment) Bill 2016
The Women’s Charter (Amendment) Bill was passed in Parliament in February 2016. The Charter was reviewed to reflect the changing family trends in Singapore.
Key amendments to the Women’s Charter (Registration of Marriage) Rules and the Women’s Charter are outlined here. In summary, the amendments to the Women’s Charter are expected to:
- help support younger couples in their transition into married life and parenthood;
- better protect the interest of children affected by their parents’ divorce;
- allow incapacitated husbands and ex-husbands to apply for spousal maintenance where there is a clear need;
- void marriages of convenience;
- better support vulnerable persons in family violence and crisis situations; and
- strengthen law enforcement against online vice.
For More Information:
The Penal Code
The Penal Code consolidates the general principles of Singapore’s law relating to criminal offences, which include (but are not exhaustive of):
Sex crimes; and
Penal Code (Amendment) 2019
In May 2019, Parliament passed the Criminal Law Reform Act and the provisions came into effect on 1 Jan 2020. Key amendments to enhance the protection of women include:
The repeal of marital immunity for rape;
Enhancement of punishments for offenders who commit intimate partner violence; and
New offences to criminalise various technology-related sexual offences.
For more information:
Penal Code (actual legislation)
MHA Press Release on ‘Commencement of Amendments to the Penal Code and Other Legislation on 1 January 2020’ on 27 Dec 2019
Protection from Harassment Act (POHA)
POHA was enacted in November 2014 to protect all persons from harassment, stalking, cyber-bullying, and other anti-social and undesirable behaviours. Under POHA, it is an offence to, through words or behaviours:
Intentionally cause harassment, alarm, or distress;
Intentionally cause fear or provocation of violence;
Unlawfully stalk a person; or
Carry out Doxxing.
POHA Amendment (2019)
POHA was amended in 2019 to strengthen the range of self-help measures, civil remedies and criminal sanctions to better protect women from harassment and related anti-social behaviour, such as cyber bullying, stalking and sexual harassment.
For more information:
MinLaw Press Release on ‘Enhancements to the Protection from Harassment Act (“POHA”)’ on 1 Apr 2019.